Clutch prep clevage of ethers
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Clutch Prep offers textbook-specific videos to help you pass your toughest science classes. Check out the list of Organic Chemistry. Hydrolysis is the cleavage of a molecule into two smaller molecules through hydration. The combination of smaller molecules into a larger molecule can be. In addition, in vitro studies reported a positive effect of kallikrein and its cleavage products, the kinins, on sperm functions including motility [ BETTER PLACE COMPANY ANALYSIS OUTLINE
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Clutch prep clevage of ethers forex jobs in dubaiCleavage of Ethers
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For example, if we treat an ether with a good nucleophile, no reaction will occur since the cyanide cannot kick out the RO— alkoxide ion: The analogy with alcohols is the poor leaving group ability of the OH group. However, again like the alcohols, we can convert alkoxides into good leaving groups. The ether cleavage is a substitution reaction where the OR group is replaced with a halogen by converting it into a good leaving group first.
This leaving group is an alcohol initially formed as an oxonium ion in the ether which is then replaced by the halide ion. If the R groups are methyl or primary alkyl groups, the reaction goes by SN2 mechanism : Tertiary ethers react by an SN1 mechanism and under milder conditions lower temperatures, more dilute acid. This is explained by the higher stability of tertiary carbocations which we have seen in the reaction of tertiary alcohols with HX acids and in SN1 mechanism in general For example, when tert-Butyl methyl ether is reacted with HI, a tertiary alkyl halide is formed with methanol because the SN1 reaction occurs faster than competing SN2 substitution.
So in three dimensions-- so we're going to have to think about acidic cleavage of ethers in three dimensions. So it makes it much harder. So if I look at an ether, which looks like this, and I add, once again, excess hydrobromic acid, and I heat things up, I'm going to get acidic cleavage of that ether. And when I'm trying to figure out the products, I know that oxygen's going to go away.
And I know that the carbons that are bonded to that oxygen are the ones that are going to form my alkyl halides. So I look at this carbon that's bonded to my oxygen. That's going to be bonded to a halogen. And if I look at this carbon on the other side of my ether, that carbon is also going to bonded to a halogen. So when I'm trying to draw the products-- so this ring here is going to stay the same.
So I'm just going to go ahead and draw my ring like that. And let's first look at this carbon right here, this one in red, which is this one over here. So it was already bonded to a methyl group right here. And the bond between the carbon and the oxygen is going to break.
And we're going to form a new bond with our halogen, which happens to be bromine. So we're going to put bromine there like that. And the opposite side, when we look at this carbon over here-- so let's go ahead and draw out that carbon in. So we're going to get like that.
So it's the carbon in blue. The bond between the carbon in blue and the oxygen is going to break. And there's going to be a new bond formed to our bromine, which is our halogen. So we can go ahead and draw our bromine in there like that. And so that will be our product. So we get two alkyl halides in the same molecule this time. We could draw the product like that, or we could kind of flatten it out a little bit.
And let's think about that ring system there. So what kind of a ring system do we have? We have one, two, three, four, five, six carbons present. So if I'm going to draw this molecule in a different way, I would have a six carbon ring-- so cyclohexane.
And if I take a look at-- let's do this carbon right here. So that's this carbon. What is attached to that carbon? Well, this carbon is attached to another carbon, there are two methyl groups, and then a bromine like that. It doesn't really matter the order that you put your methyl groups and your bromine. And this is because this carbon right here is not a chirality center.
So you don't have to worry too much about that. Let's look at this carbon down here-- so in green. So I'll make this one down here in green. There's a methyl group attached to that carbon. So if I make a methyl group attach to that carbon right here.
And there's also a bromine attached to that carbon. So these are just two different ways to represent the exact same molecule for your product after the acidic cleavage of the original ether. So kind of a tough one because your thinking in three dimensions here. Let's do one more example for the acidic cleavage ethers. And we'll start with ethyl. Let's do ethyl phenol ether here. So I'll draw a phenol group. So here is our phenol group. And then we'll have an ethyl group on this side.
So what will be the product of ethyl phenol ether reacted with excess hydrobromic acid, and everything is heated up? All right, so let's think about the mechanism. We know that in our mechanism the first step is to protonate the ether. So the ether's going to function as a base, pick up a proton from hydrobromic acid.
So if we go ahead and draw the first step, the acid base reaction there. So we're going to protonate our ether. And that means there's going to be a hydrogen attached to our oxygen now. Lone pair of electrons still left on our oxygen, plus 1 formal charge on our oxygen like that.
Well, we have the bromide anion left over after HBr donates a proton. Br negative is left. The bromide anion is going to function as my nucleophile. And it's going to proceed via an SN2 mechanism. Therefore, it's going to attack the least stericly hindered alkyl group, which is, of course, the alkyl group on the right. So lone pair of electrons is going to attack this carbon right in here.
And these electrons would then kick off onto my oxygen. So if I draw the result of that nucleophilic attack, I now have my ring over here. And I just turned everything into an OH group. Because now I have an oxygen with two lone pairs of electrons on it like that.
So I make phenol as one of my products here. And the the bromide anion just added on to an ethyl group. So we're going to form methyl bromide as our other product. So ethyl bromide would be the other product here. And let me just highlight those carbons. So these two carbons are these two carbons right there for my product. And it turns out that this reaction will stop at this point.
So these are your two products. Phenol and ethyl bromide. And the reaction doesn't really continue on. Let's pretend like the reaction does continue on. And we'll see why it actually stops here. So if we were to continue on in our mechanism, we would next protonate the phenol. So we have HBr here again. The addition of hydrobromic acid, we would protonate the phenol. So if we protonated that phenol right there, we would get something that looks like this, with a plus 1 formal charge on our oxygen.
And we would also form the bromide to anion. And if this mechanism were to continue like usual, the bromide anion would function as our nucleophile. And it would attack this carbon right here on our ring.
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